˲    в         ˲    ˲    ˲ò            



[ . . . ., 2000. . 220-247.]

       





̲



1. Charles Taylor Modes of Civil Society, Public Culture, vol. 3, no. 1 (Fall 1990), pp. 95-118; Edward Shils The Virtues of Civil Society, Government and Opposition, vol. 26, no. 2. (Winter 1991), pp. 3-20; Edward Shils Was ist eine Civil Society? in K. Michelski (ed.) Europe und die Civil Society (Stuttgart: Kult-Cota, 1991), pp. 13-52; Michael Waltzer The Idea of Civil Society, Dissent. Spring 1991, pp. 293-304; Daniel Bell American Exceptionalism Revisited: The Role of Civil Society, The Public Interest, no. 95 (1989), pp. 38-56.

2. Bell American Exceptionalism Revisited, p. 56.

3. Vladimir Tismaneanu Reinventing Politics: Eastern Europe After Communism, New York: Free Press, 1992).

4. (John Keane) Democracy and Civil Society (London: Verso, 1988).

5. Karl Marx On the Jewish Question in Collected Works, vol. 3. (Moscow: Progress Publishers, 1975), p. 154.

6. .: John Keane Despotism and Democracy, Civil Society and the State (London: Verso, 1988), pp. 35-72, Norberto Bobbio Gramsci and the Concept of Civil Society, pp. 73-100 . . Bell American Exceptionalism Revisited.

7. Marcel Mauss A Category of the Human Mind: The Notion of Person, the Notion of Self, in Marcel Mauss Sociology and Philosophy (London: Routledge & Kegal Paul, 1979), pp. 85-89; Max Weber Economy and Society, vol. 2 (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1978), p. 1209.

8. Richard Sennett The Fall of Public Man (New York: Knopf, 1977).

9. .: Proceedings of the 1991 Annual Convention of the Hungarian Sociological Association, June 24-28, Magyarorszag A Vilagban (Hungary in the World), 42 .

10. , Charles Maier (ed.) Changing Boundaries of the Political (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1987).

11. Carole Pateman The Fraternal Social Contract in Keane Civil Society, pp. 101-28.

12. Peter Singer Animal Liberation (New York: Avon Books, 1975); T. Reagan The Case for Animal Rights (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1983). /221/

13. Max Weber Social Psychology of World Religions in H. H. Gerth and C. W. Mills (ed.) From Max Weber: Essays in Sociology (Oxford University Press. 1958), p. 281.






1.


1. : Hermann Klenner Social Contract Theories in a Comparative Perspective in Law and Society (Tokyo: Wasada University Press, 1988), pp. 49-68.

2. , . .: Eric Voeglin The New Science of Politics (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1952), esp. ch. 1.

3. The Defensor Pacis of Marsilius of Padua, ed. C. W. Previte-Orton (Cambridge, 1928).

4. George Sabine A History of Political Thought (New York: Rinehart & Winston. 1950), pp. 141-51.

5. Sheldon Wohlin Politics and Vision (Boston: Little, Brown & Co., 1960), pp. 69-82.

6. P. Stein Roman Law in J. H. Burns (ed.) The Cambridge History of Medieval Political Thought c. 350-1450 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1988), pp. 37-50; C. Mcllwain The Growth of Political Thought in the West (New York: Macmillan, 1932).

7. Cicero The Republic, W, 2, cited in Sabine History of Political Thought, p. 164.

8. R. Markus The Latin Fathers, pp. 92-122 in Burns (ed.) Cambridge History, esp. pp. 97. 99-100, 111.

9. R. Carlyle A History of Medieval Political Theory in the West. 6 vol. (Edinburgh: Blackwood, 1936), vol. 2, 102-13.

10. Ernst Troeltsch The Social Teachings of the Christian Churches, 2 vols. (New York: Macmillan, 1931), vol. 1, pp. 150-58.

11. : Jaroslav Pelikan The Christian Tradition: A History of the Development of Dogma, 4 vols. (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1971), vol. 3, p. 74.

12. Troeltsch Social Teachings, vol. 1, p. 262.

13. , . 260-61.

14. , . 266.

15. Richard Tuck Natural Rights Theories (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1979), pp. 32-44.

16. Quentin Skinner The Foundations of Modern Political Thought, 2 vols. (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1978), vol. 2, pp. 339-42. /222/

17. Tuck Natural Rights, p. 42.

18. .: Otto Gierke Natural Law and the Theory of Society 5001800 (Cambridge, 1934).

19. Hugo Grotius De Jui belli ai pacis. Book I, ch. 1, section X, p.1 .

20. , . 5.

21. Duncan Forber Humes Philosophical Politics (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1975), p. 17.

22. ., , John Rawls A Theory of Justice (Cambridge, MA: Cambridge University Press, 1971), p. 11.

23. Tuck Natural Rights, pp. 3, 5, 79, 172-73; John Dunn The Political Theory of John Locks (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1969).

24. Book VII, set. 89 ( VII, . 89). : John Locke Two Treatises of Government, ed. Peter Laslett (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1960). , Book . , . .

25. , Book, VIII, set. 101.

26. , Book VII, set. 87.

27. , Book II, set. 4.

28. , Book II, set. 6.

29. Dunn Political Theory, p. 106.

30. Locke Two Treatises. Book Vn, set. 87.

31. Dunn Political Theory, p. 127.

32. Locke Two Treatises, in Book XI, set. 135.

33. , Book XI, . 135.

34. Dunn Political Theory, p. 103.

35. , . 260.

36. Charies Taylor Sources of the Self: The Making of Modern Identity (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1989)

37. Alasdair Maclntyre Whose Justice, Which Rationality (Notre Dame, IN: University of Notre Dame Press, 1988), p. 268.

38. Adam Ferguson An Essay on the History of Civil Society, 5 ed. (London, 1782), p. 57.

39. Adam Smith Theory of Moral Sentiments(Indianapolis: Liberty Classics, 1982), p. 50.

40. Albert Hirschman The Passions and the Interests (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1979), p. 109. . Nicholas Phillipson Adam Smith as Civil Moralist in I. Hont and M. Ignatieff (ed.) Wealth /223/ and Virtue: The Shaping of Political Economy in the Scottish Enlightenment (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1985), pp. 179-202.

41. Smith Moral Sentiments, p. 50.

42. Ferguson Civil Society, p. 52.

43. , . 53.

44. Emile Durkheim The Dualism of Human Nature and Its Social Condition in R. Bellah (ed.) Emile Durkheim on Morality and Society (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1973), pp. 149-68.

45. Maclntyre Whose Justice, pp. 241-80.

46. Ferguson Civil Society, p. 95.

47. I. Hont and M. Ignatieff Needs and Justice in the Wealth of Nations: An Introductory Essay, pp. 1-44 in Hont and Ignatieff Wealth and Virtue, p. 11.

48. Jacob Viner The Role of Providence in the Social Order (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1972), pp. 55-85.

49. Ferguson Civil Society, p. 365.

50. Anthony Third Earl of Shaftesbury Caracteristics of Men, Manners, Opinions and Times (New York: Bobbs-Merrill, 1964).

51. Ferguson Civil Society, p. 58.

52. , . 45.

53. , . 44.

54. Maclntyre Whose Justice, pp. 218-325.

55. David Hume A Treatise of Human Nature, ed. H. D. Aiken (New York: Macmillan, 1948), Book III, Pt. I, section 1, p. 185.

56. David Hume, An Enquiry Concerning the Principles of Moralsin A.MacIntyre (ed.) Humes Ethical Writings (Notre Dame, IN: Notre Dame University Press, 1965), appendix I, p. 131.

57. Hume Treatise, Book III, pt. I, section 2, pp. 69-82.

58. , . 225.

59. , Book III, pt. II, section 3, p. 63.

60. , . 65.

61. , 2, . 63. , , ,  (ought) (is). .: A. Maclntyre Hume on Is and Ought V. C. Chappell (ed.) Hume (New York: Anchor Books, 1959), pp. 245-64. , . , ( ), . , -/224/ , , . ( ) . . , , , , , . , , , , , . , , . , ( ) . - ( 璺 ) .

62. Hume Treatise, Book III, Pt. II, section 2. p. 64.

63. .

64. Ferguson Civil Society (supra, n. 38), pp. 364-367.

65. Hume Treatise, Book ID, Pt. II, section 2, pp. 61-62.

66. , section 4. p. 86.

67. .: Immanuel Kant The Metaphysical Elements of Justice, Pt. I of The Metaphysics of Morals (1794), . J. Ladd (New York: Bobbs-Merrill, 1965).

68. Susan Meld Shell The Rights of Reason (Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1980), p. 83.

69. Immanuel Kant Critique of Practical Reason, trans. L. W. Beck (New York: Macmillan, 1985), p. 90.

70. Immanuel Kant Idea for a Universal History from a Cosmopolitan Point of View (1784), . L.Beck, pp. 11-16 in L.Beck (ed.) Immanuel Kant on History (New York: Bobbs-Merrill, 1963).

71. Immanuel Kant Anthropology From a Pragmatic Point of View, (1797), . M.Gregor (The Hague: Nijoff, 1974), 325; Conjectural beginnings of Human History (1786), . E.Fackenheim, pp. 53-68 in Beck Kant, 115-17; On the Old Saw: That What May Be Right in Theory Wont Work in Practice, . E.B.Ashton (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press,1974).

72. John Laursen The Subversive Kant: The Vocabulary of Public and Publicity, Political Theory, vol. 14. no. 4 (November 1986), pp. 584-603

73. Hannah Arendt Lectures on Kants Political Philosophy (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1982), p. 60.

74. Immanuel Kant What Is Enlightenment (1784), . L. Beck, pp. 3-10 Beck Kant, 1963. /225/

75. John Rundell Origins of Modernity (Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1987), p. 28.

76. Kant Metaphysical Elements of justice, 230-32.

77. , 237-38.

78. Shell Rights of Reason, p. 123.

79. Kant Metaphysical Elements of Justice, 217-28.

80. Rundell Origins, p. 35-55.

81. .: Robert Shaver Rousseau and Recognition, Social Theory and Practice, vol. 15, no. 3 (Fall 1989), pp. 26-28.

82. G. W. F. Hegel The Philosophy of Right, (1821), . T.Knox (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1952), pp. 4-57.

83. , . 105-55; G. W. F. Hegel Hegel and the Human Spirit: A Translation of the Jena Lectures on Philosophy of Spirit (1805-1806) , . L. Rauch (Detroit: Wayne State University Press, 1983), pp. 99-118.

84. Hegel Human Spirit, p. 118.

85. J. M. Bernstein From Self-consciousness to Community: Act and Recognition in the Master-Slave Relationship, pp. 14-39 Z. A.Pelczynski (ed.) The State and Civil Society: Studies in Hegels Political Philosopohy (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1984).

86. Hegel Philosophy of Right, 4, c. 20.

87. Joachim Ritter Hegel and the French Revolution (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1984), p. 158.

88. Hegel Philosophy of Right, 7, c. 23.

89. , 182, c. 122-23.

90. , 184, c. 123.

91. .

92. , 185, . 123.

93. , 238, . 148; 225, . 154.

94. , 255, . 154.

95. , 288, . 189.

96. , , . ³, , : , (, , ). , , , , , -/226/pec. , ᒺ ; ... , , . , , , ; , ( , ) . , , , ... ... .... ҳ, , , ᒺ , , , , ( , Zusatz 294, . 191-92). ( , , ), . , . 䳿, . , , -, , ( ), . ֳ , (, , aufhebung). , , , .

97. Karl Marx Preface and Introduction to A Contribution to The Critique of Political Economy (Peking: Foreign Languages Press, 1976), p. 10.

98. , . 9. .

99. Friedrich Engels Karl Marx: A Contribution to the Critique of Political Economy in Marx, Critique, p. 54.

100. Karl Marx Contribution to the Critique of Hegels Philosophy of Law, K.Marx and F. Engels Collected Works, (New York: International Publishers, 1975), vol.3, p.8.

101. Jean Cohen Class and Civil Society (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1982), pp. 29-36.

102. Karl Marx On the Jewish Question in K.Marx and F.Engels Collected Works (Moscow: Progress Publishers, 1975), vol. 3, pg. 153. /227/

103. . .

104. , . 162.

105. , . 164.

106. , . 165.

107. , . 166.

108. .

109. .

110. .

111. , . 168.

112. Lesek Kolakowski The Myth of Human Self-Identity in L.Kolakowski and Hampshire (ed.) The Socialist Idea (New York: Basic Books, 1975).

113. Times Literary Supplement (London), June 21, 1991, p. 22.







2. :


1. Giambattista Vico The New Science of Politics, trans. Bergin and Fisch (Ithaca, NY, 1948); I. Berlin Vico and Herder (London, 1946); A.R. Caponigri Time and Idea: The Theory of History of Giambattista Vico (London, 1953). .: J. C. A. Pocock The Machiavellian Moment (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1975); Felix Rabb The English Face of Machiavelli (London, 1964); Caroline Robbins The Eighteenth Century Commonwealthmen (Cambridge, 1959).

2. (Burke) .: . Sabine A History of Political Theory (New York: Rinhart & Winston, 1961), pp. 607-19. .: J. G. A. Pocock Burke and the Ancient Constitution: A Problem in the History of Ideas, pp. 203-32 in J. G. A. Pocock Politics, Language and Time (New York, 1973). . . G. W. F. Hegel The Philosophy of History (New York, 1956). .: Istvan Meszaros Marxs Theory of Alienation(London, 1970). .: C.A.Cohen Karl Marxs Theory of History: A Defense (Oxford, 1978).

3. Knud Haakonssen Hugo Grotius and the History of Political Thought, Political Theory, vol. 13, no. 2 (May 1985), p. 248.

4. Otto Gierke Political Theory of the Middle Ages (Boston: Beacon, 1958), p. 75.

5. Wolfgang Schluchter The Rise of Western Rationalism (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1981), p. 104.

6. S.N.Eisenstadt The Axial Age: The Emergence of Transcendental Visions and the Rise of the Clerics, European Journal of Sociology, no. 23, 1982, pp. 294-314. /228/

7. Eric Voeglin Order and History (Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1954).

8. Benjamin Schwartz (ed.) Wisdom, Revelation and Doubt: Perspectives on the First Millennium BC, Daedalus, Spring 1975.

9. Eisenstadt Axial Age, p. 300.

10. Robert Bellah Religious Evolution, American Sociological Review, vol. 29 (1964), pp. 358-74.

11. Max Weber Social Psychology of World Religions in H. Gerth and C. W. Mills (ed.) From Max Weber: Essays in Sociology (New York: Oxford University Press, 1958), pp. 44-45.

12. Wolfgang Schluchter The Paradox of Rationalization in W.Schluchter and G. Roth Max Webers Vision of History (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1979), p. 23.

13. S. N. Eisenstadt Heterodoxy and the Dynamics of Civilizations, Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society, vol. 128 (1984), pp.1056; Schluchter Rise of Western Rationalizm, p. 43; R. Lovin and F.Reynolds (ed.) Cosmogony and Ethical Order (Chicago, 1985).

14. Schluchter Rise of Western Rationalism, pp. 44-48; D. A. Knight Cosmogony and Order in the Hebrew Tradition, pp. 133-57 in Lovin and Reynolds Cosmogony; Hans Betz Cosmology and Ethics in in the Sermon on the Mount, pp. 158-76 in Lovin and Reynolds Cosmogony.

15. S.N.Eisenstadt This Worldly Transcendentalism and the Structuring of the World: Webers Religion of China and the Format of Chinese History and Civilization. Journal of Development Studies, vol.1 (1985), pp. 168-86; Schluchter Rise of Western Rationalism, pp. 47.67; Benjamin Schwartz Transcendence in Ancient China, Daedalus, 1975, pp. 57-69; idem. The World of Thought in Ancient China (Cambridge, 1985), pp. 56-134; John Smith The Individual in the Judeo-Christian Tradition, pp. 251-67 in C. Moore (ed.) The Status of the Individual in East and West (Honolulu, 1968).

16. Marcel Mauss A Category of the Human Mind: The Notion of Person, the Notion of Self in Marcel Mauss Sociology and Philosophy (London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1979), pp. 85-89.

17. Louis Dumont A Modified View of Our Origins: The Christian Beginning of Modem Individualism, Religion, vol. 12 (1982), pp. 1-27.

18. Ernst Troeltsch The Social Teachings of the Christian Churches, 2 vols. (New York: Macmillan, 1931), vol. 1 pp. 110-11; Adolf Harnack History of Dogma, (New York: Dover, 1961), vol. 1, pp. 203-22; Jaroslav Pelikan The Christian Tradition: A History of the Development of Dogma, 4 vols. (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1971), vol. 1, pp. 278-331.

19. (Eucharist) .: Rudolf Bultman Primitive Christianity (Philadelphia, 1956), p. 187.

20. .: Francis Clark Eucharist Sacrifice end the Reformation (London, 1960), s. 127-76. /229/

21. . David Little Religion. Order and Law (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1984), p. 41.

22. Troeltsch Social Teachings, vol. 2, pp. 590-92.

23. John Calvin Institutes of the Christian Religion, ed. John McNeill (Philadelphia, 1960), vol. 4, 1, p. 5.

24. E. Troeltsch Social Teachings, vol. 2, pp. 596-597. , , , , , . , , , , , , .

25. Donald Kelly The Beginning of Ideology (London, 1981), p. 80.

26. Richard Rogers Seven Treatises... Called the Practice of Christianitie, 2d ed. (London, 1605), pp. 497-98.

27. , , . 򳿻, . , , Geneva Confession of Faith (1536), the Scottish National Covenant (1638), the English Solemn League and Covenant (1643), 볿 䳺 .

28. Talcott Parsons Christianity and Modern Industrial Society, in E.Tiryakian (ed.) Sociological Theory (New York: Harper & Row, 1967), p. 51.

29. Max Weber The Protestant Ethic and the Theory of Capitalism (New York: Charles Scribners Sons, 1958). .: M. MacKinnon Calvinism and the Infallibility of Grace and Webers Explanation of Calvinism, British Journal of Sociology, vol. XXXIX, no. 2 (June 1988), pp. 143-210.

30. Benjamin Nelson The Idea of Usury: From Tribal Brotherhood to Universal Otherhood (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1969), p.241.

31. Benjamin Nelson Self-images and Systems of Spiritual Direction in the History of European Civilization, in S. Klausner (ed.) The Quest for SelfControl: Classical Philosophies and Scientific Research (New York: Free Press, 1965), p. 71.

32. .

33. Benjamin Nelson Conscience and the Making of Early Modern Culture: The Protestant Ethic Beyond Max Weber, Social Research, vol. 36 (1969), pp. 16-13. /230/

34. Pocock Machiavellian Moment (supra, n. 1), p. 396; W. Hunt The Puritan Moment: The Coming of Revolution in an English County (Cambridge: Cambildge University Press, 1985), pp. 90-91, 131-35; M.Watts The Dissenters (Oxford: Clarendon Press. 1978), pp. 30, 31, 41, 42, 55, 56; J. McGee The Godly Man in Stuart England (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1976).

35. .: Little Religion. Order and Law (supra, n. 1), pp. 62-80; Michael Waltzer The Revolution of the Saints (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1965), pp. 30-57; Troeltsch Social Teachings (supra, no. 18), vol. 2, pp. 617-25.

36. Dumont Modified View of Our Origins (supra, no. 17).

37. John Winthrop Winthrop Papers (Boston: Massachusetts Historical Society, 1931), vol. 2, p. 283.

38. John Winthrop A Reply to an Answer Made to a Declaration... (1637) in Thomas Hutchinson (ed.) A Collection of Original Pavers Relative to the History of the Colony of Massachusetts Bay (Boston, 1764). pp. 100-101.

39. John Cotton Copy of a Letter to Lord Say and Seale in the Year 1636 in Hutchinson Original Papers, pp. 414-415.

40. Quoted in Kenneth Lockridge A New England Town: The First Hundred Years (New York: Norton, 1970), pp. 4-5.

41. John Davenport A Discourse About Civil Government in a New Plantation Whose Design is Religion (Cambridge, 1663), pp. 14-15, 45.

42. Edward Johnson Wonder Working Providence of Sions Saviour in Neew England (1654) (New York: Delmar, 1974), p. 46.

43. 볿 .: George Haskins Law and Authority in Early Massachusetts (Hamden, CT: Archon Book, 1960), pp. 17-32.

44. The Book of General Lauues and Libertyes Concerning the Inhabitants of Massachussets (Boston, 1648), p. A2.

45. .

46. .

47. .

48. .: Haskins Law and Authority, pp. 158-162.

49. Thomas Sheppard and John Allin A Defense of an Answer... (London, 1648), p. 86.

50. , , Perry Miller Errand into the Wilderness (New York: Harper & Row 1964), 볿 The New England Mind: The Seventeenth Century and The New England Mind: From Colony to Province(Boston: Belknap Press, 1953).

51. J.Bossy Christianity in the West 1400-1700 (Oxford: Oxford University Press. 1985), p. 108; E. Battis Saints and Sectaries: Anne /231/ Hutchinson and the Antinomian Controversy (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1963), pp. 330-44; D. Hall The Antinomian Controversy: A Documentary History (Middletown, CT: Wesleyan University Press, 1968), p. 95.

52. .: Bernard Bailyn The New England Merchants in the Seventeenth Century (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1955).

53. , , Half-Way Covenant ( ), , Stoddard-Mather, , ( ), 볿. .: Adam Seligman Inner Worldly Individualism and the Institutionalization of Puritanism in late 17 century New England, British Journal of Sociology, vol.41, no. 1(1990), pp. 537-57.

54. 볿 .: . . Holifield The Covenant Sealed: The Development of Puritan Sacramental Theology in Old and New England 1570-1720 (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1974) esp. ch. 8. ϳ Saybrook 1705 , D.Hall The Faithful Shepherd (New York: Norton, 1972), p. 274; R. Bushman From Puritan to Yankee (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1967), p. 151.

55. .: Bushman From Puritan to Yankee.

56. , (Independents) 볿, , Half Way Covenant ( ), 䒺 . : , . Max Weber Economy and Society (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1978), p. 208.

57. Paul Lucas Valley of Discord: Church and Society Along the Connecticut River. 1636-1662 (Middletown, CT: Wesleyan University Press, 1968), pp. 126, 242, 244.

58. John Wise Vindication of the Government of New England Churches (Boston, 1717), pp. 32-47.

59. Carl Becker The Declaration of Independence (New York: Vintage Press, 1958), p. 78.

60. John Adams The Papers of John Adams, 4 vols, ed. R.Taylor, (Cambridge: Belknap Press, 1977), vol.4, pp. 291-93.

61. , . 230.

62. James Wilson The Works of James Wilson, ed. B. Wilson, (Philadelphia: Bronson & Channing, 1804), vol. 3, p. 205.

63. , . 1, c. 124. /232/

64. E.L.Tuveson Redeemer Nation: The Idea of Americas Millennial Role Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1968).

65. Alan Heimart Religion and the American Mind (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1966), p. 61.

66. Tuveson Redeemer Nation, p. 23.

67. Heimart American Mind; N. O. Hatch The Sacred Cause of Liberty: Republican Thought and the Millennium in Revolutionary New England(New Haven: Yale University Press, 1977); Ruth Bloch Visionary Republic: Millennial Themes in American Thought 1765-1800 (London: Cambridge University Press, 1985).

68. Pocock Machiavellian Moment (supra, no. 1).

69. John Adams Dissertation on Cannon and Feudal Law (Boston, 1765), p. 126.

70. David Lovejoy Religious Enthusiasm in the New World (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1985), p. 227.

71. Tuveson Redeemer Nation, p. 24.

72. Pocock Machiavellian Moment, p. 512.

73. Adams Papers (supra, n. 60), vol. 2.

74. , . 230, 291-93, 311-12.

75. Robert Bellah Civil Religion in America, Daedalus, vol. 96 (Winter 1967), pp. 1-21.

76. Wilson Papers (supra, n. 62), vol. 1, p. 106.

77. Robert Bellah The Broken Covenant (New York: Seabury Press, 1975).

78. R.W.B. Lewis The American Adam (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1958).

79. F.McDonald Novus Ordo Seclorum (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1978). p. 58.

80. Bernard Bailyn Pamphlets of the American Revolution 17401776(Cambridge: Belknap Press, 1965). p. 27.

81. , . 559.

82. , . 426, 441.

83. Adams Papers, vol. 2, p. 140.

84. , vol. 1, pp. 333-53, 344.

85. : Adam Seligman Charisma and the Transformation of Grace in the Early Modem Era, Social Research, vol. 58, no. 3 (1991), pp. 591-620.

86. Yehoshua Arieli Individualism and Nationalism in American Life (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1964), p. 83.

87. .

88. Georg Jellinek The Declaration of the Rights of Man and of Citizens: A Contribution to Modern Constitutional History(Westport, CT: Hyperion Press, 1979), p. 48. /233/

89. , . 53.

90. , . 80

91. , . 62

92. , . 61.

93. , . 92.

94. , . 9.

95. Arieli Individualism and Nationalism.

96. 䳺 Ludwig Siep Person and Law in Kant and Hegel in R.Shurmann (ed.) The Public Realm (Albany: SUNY Press, 1989), pp. 82-104, (p. 84).

97. Emile Durkheim Sociology ttnd Philosophy (New York: Free Press, 1974), p. 54.

98. Benjamin Whichcote The Uses of Reason in Matters of Religion, pp. 42-61 in C. A. Patrides (ed.) The Cambridge Platonists (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1969), p. 46.

99. Mauss Category of Human Mind (supra, n. 16).

100. Otto Gierke Natural Law and the Theory of Society 500-1800 (Cambridge, 1934).

101. I Corinthians 12: 12.13.

102. Sheldon Wohlin Politics and Vision (Boston: Little, Brown & Co.,1960), p. 101.

103. Gierke Political Theories of Middle Ages (supra, n. 4), p. 10.

104. , , , Գ , , . 209, . 134.

105. Max Weber Economy and Society, vol. 2 (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1978), p. 556.

106. Nelson Idea of Usury (supra, n. 30).

107. Jurgen Habermas Theory and Practice (Boston: Beacon Press, 1974), pp. 132-33.

108. .

109. Gierke Natural Law, p. 40. .

110. G. W. F.Hegel The Philosophy of Right (1821), . . Knox (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1962), p. 134.

111. Albrecht Wellmer Models of Freedom in the Modern World, pp. 227-252 in M. Kelly (ed.) Hermeneutics and Critical Theory in Ethics and Politics (Cambridge: MIT Press, 1990), p. 238.

112. Jellinek Declaration of Rights of Man (supra, n. 88), pp. 74-75. /234/






3. ,


1. Adam Przeworski Capitalism and Social Democracy (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1985), p. 32.

2. S.M.Lipset Radicalism or Reformism: The Sources of Working Class Politics, The American Political Science Review, vol. 77 (1983), p. 6.

3. H.F.Moorhouse The Political Incorporation of the British Working Class: An Interpretation, Sociology, vol. 7, no. 3 (1973), p.345; J. M. Barbalet Citizenship(Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1988), pp. 83-84.

4. ֳ , , . , , .: Samuel Bowles and Herbert Gintis Democracy and Capitalism: Property, Community and the Contradictions of Modern Social Thought (New York: Basic Books, 1987), p. 43.

5. Werner Sombart Why There is No Socialism in the USA (London: Macmillan, 1975). ˳ (Lipset). .: Seymour Martin Lipset American Exceptionalism in the North American Perspective: Why the United States Has Withstood the World Socialist Movement in G. Adams (ed.) The Idea of America (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1977); American Exception alism in M.Novak (ed.) Capitalism and Socialism: A Theological Inquiry (Washington, DC: AE. 1.1979), pp. 34-60.Ha .: Aristide Zolberg How Many Exceptionalismsin I. Katznelson and A. Zolberg (ed.) Working Class Formation: 19 Century Patterns in Western Europe and the United States (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1986), pp. 397-455.

6. Lipset Radicalism or Reformism, p. 2.

7. Selig Perlman A Theory of the Labor Movement (New York: A. M. Kelly, 1928), p. 167.

8. Arnold Mayer The Persistence of the Old Regimes: Europe to the Great War (New York: Pantheon Books, 1981), p. 135.

9. Lipset Radicalism or Reformism, p. 2.

10. Paul Jacobs What Can We Expect from the Unions? in I. Howe (ed.) The Radical Papers (New York: Doubleday, 1966), pp. 262-64.

11. Rienhart Bendix National-Building and Citizenship(Berkeley: University of California Press, 1977), p. 96.

12. Leo Sampson Americanism as Surrogate socialism in J. Laslett and S.M.Lipset (ed.) Failure of a Dream, 1st ed.(New York: Anchor Books, 1974), p. 426.

13. Adam Seligman The Failure of Socialism in the United States: A Reconsideration; S. N. Eisenstadt Center Formation: Protest Movements and Class Structure in Europe and the United States (London: Pinter Press, 1987), pp. 90-117. /235/

14. ., , F. Alexander Moving Frontiers: An American Theme and Its Application to Australian History (Melbourne: Melbourne University Press, 1947); P. A. Sharp Three Frontiers: Some Comparative Studies of Canadian, American and Australian Settlement, Pacific Historical Review, vol. 24 (1955); P.J. Coleman The New Zealand Frontier and the Turner Thesis, Pacific Historical Review, vol. 27 (1958), pp. 221 37.

15. Stephan Themstrom Socialism and Social Mobility in Laslett and Upset Failure of a Dream, p. 550.

16. Sampson Americanism as Surrogate socialism, p. 426.

17. Bendix Nation-Building, p. 115.

18. Lipset American Exception alism in North American Perspective (supra, n. 5).

19. Samuel Huntington American Politics: The Promise of Disharmony (Cambridge: MA Belknap Press 1981).

20. T.H.Marshall Class, Citizenship and Social Development(Westport, CT: Greenwood Press 1973), pp. 71-72.

21. .: Massimo Long Waves in the Development of Welfare Systems in Charles Maier (ed.) Changing Boundaries of the Political (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1987), pp. 179-99.

22. Michael Waltzer Spheres of Justice (New York: Basic Books, 1983), .

23. .: Paul Stair and Ellen Immergut Health Care and the Boundaries of Politics in Maier Changing Boundaries, pp. 221-254

24. , (FIDESZ), ( ) , ( ).

25. Speenhamland - , . 1834 񳺿 볿 (Karl Polanyi) The Great Transformation: The Political and Economic Origins of Our Times (Boston: Beacon Press, 1957), pp 77-110. , : , , , . , .

26. Marshall Class, Citizenship, p 80.

27. Emile Durkheim The Dualism of Human Nature and Its Social Condition R. Bellah (ed.) Emile Durkheim on Morality and Society (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1973), pp. 161-62. /236/

28 Emile Durkheim Individualism and the Intellectuals in Bellah Durkheim on Morality, p. 44.

29. ., , Emile Durkheim The Division of Labor in Society (New York: Free Press, 1964), pp. 200-229.

30. Steven Lukes Emile Durkheim: His Life and Work (Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 1985), pp. 320-360.

31. Talcott Parsons The Structure of Social Action (New York Free Press, 1968), pp. 315-316.

32. , . 333.

33. Durkheim Individualism and Intellectuals, p 52.

34. Lukes Emile Durkheim, pp. 337-39.

35. Durkheim Individualism and Intellectuals, p. 45

36. Lukes Emile Durkheim, pp. 540-41

37. Emile Durkheim Socialism (New York: Collier Books, 1962), pp. 245-46

38. Emile Durkheim Professional Ethics and Civic Morals(Westport, CT: Green wood Press, 1958), p. 69.

39. , . 65

40. .

41. .

42. Durkheim Socialism, pp. 34-35.

43. , . 247.

44. .: Lukes Emile Durkheim, p. 246.

45. Durkheim Socialism, p. 48.

46. , . 285.

47. Durkheim Professional Ethics, p 64.

48. , . 64, 68.

49. , . 68.

50. Emile Durkheim Moral Education: A Study of the Theory and Application of the Sociology of Education (New York: Free Press, 1961), p. 122.

51. Parsons Structure (supra, n. 31), p. 389.

52. Emile Durkheim Sociology and Philosophy (New York: Free Press, 1974), Talcott Parsons Durkheim on Religion Revisited Talcott Parsons Action Theory and the Human Condition (New York: Free Press, 1978), pp. 213-32.

53. Durkheim Individualism and Intellectuals (supra, no. 28), p 46.

54. , . /237/ , .

55. Durkheim Moral Education, p. 19

56. , , , , sui-generis. , . 60.

57. Durkheim Sociology and Philosophy, p. 54.

58. Max Weber Economy and Society (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1978), 1209.

59. Max Weber Science as a Vocation H. H. Gerth . W. Mills (ed.) From Max Weber: Essays in Sociology (New York: Oxford, 1958), p. 155.

60. Jean-Francois Lyotard The Differend (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1988), p. 37.

61. Michel Foucault The Order of Things (New York: Vintage Press, 1973), p. 387.

62. Weber Economy and Society, p. 1209.

63. Jurgen Habermas The Structural Transformation of the Public Sphere, . Thomas Burger (Cambridge: MIT Press), ms. p. 72.

64. , , , , Roger Chartier The Cultural Origins of the French Revolution (Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 1991), pp. 196, 334-37.

65. ( ), , , . ³ . Richard Tuck Natural Rights Theories (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1979). , , , Գ , , . Manfred Reidel Nature and Freedom in Hegels Philosophy of Right in Z.A.Pelczynski (ed.) Hegels Political Philosophy (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1971), p. 146.

66. ., , Keith Tester Animals and Society: The Humanity of Animal Rights (London: Routledge, 1991). .: James Sheehan and Morton Sosna (ed.) The Boundaries of Humanity: Humans, Animals and Machines (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1991), .: Michael Leahy Against Liberation: Putting Animals in Perspective (London: Routledge, 1991).

67. , , ius naturale, -/238/ ᒺ . , , - .

68. . . The Passions and the Interests ( ) . , . Ƴ , qua () . , 㳿 (IVF-GIFT, , ), . clitoridectomy (Revue de MAUSS, no. 4, Deuxieme trimestre 1989) , . ,  , , . Josephine Donovan Animal Rights and Feminist Theory, Signs, vol. 15, no. 2(1990), pp. 350-75

69. Faye Ginsburg Contested Lives: The Abortion Debate in an American Community (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1989), p.9.

70. John Gray in Times Literary Supplement (London), February 1, 1991, p. 7.

71. Max Weber The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism (New York: Scribners, 1958), p. 182.

72. John Dunn The Political Theory of John Locke (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1969), p. 250.

73. ֳ , , . , , , . , г, , . ³ : ³ . -, ( ) . , , , . , ; , , , /239/ . , , , , . . , - . , , , , (, , ). г , : ͳ , ... , , , , (John Reed One South: An Ethnic Approach to Regional Culture(Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1982), p. 173). , . ó ( , ), , . , , ( ) , , , , .

74. Max Weber Churches and Sects in North America, trans, and introduced by C. Loader and J. Alexander, Sociological Theory, vol. 1, no. 3(1985), pp. 1-12.

75. Alexis de Tocqueville Democracy in America. 2 vols. (1860, rev.) (New York: Vintage, 1945), vol. 2, p. 338.

76. , . 339.

77. , . 350.

78. . , . , ̳ (1859) . ( ) (Schmitt), . 򳿻 (Cambridge: MIT Press. 1988) (1926). (), . . , , -/240/ ( 򳺿 Arcana rei publicie, ). , . [ , ] , , . , , ( ) , , . , , . , , The Origins of Totalitarianism ( ). , , , , , ( ), , .

79. Katharine Bartlett and Jean OBarr The Chilly Climate on College Campuses: An Expansion of the Hate Speech Debate, Duke Law journal, vol. 1990, no. 3, pp. 574-86. esp., pp. 580-81.

80. C. L. Ten Mill on Self-Regarding Actions, Philosophy, vol. 43 (1968), pp. 29-37.

81. I. Young Impartiality and the Civil Public in S. Benhabib and D. Cornell (ed.) Feminism as Critique (Oxford: Basil Blackwell, 1987), pp. 57-76; C. Kitzinger The Regulation of Lesbian Identities: Liberal Humanism as an Ideology of Social Contol in J. Shelter and K. Green (ed.) Text of Identity (London: Sage Publications, 1989), pp. 82-98.

82. M. Daly Gyn/Ecology: The Metaethics of Radical Feminism (Boston: Beacon Press, 1978); A. Dworkin Intercourse (New York: Free Press, 1987).

83. Patrick Devlin Morals and the Criminal Law, in D. Spitz (ed.). : John Stuart Mill Annotated text. Sources and Background Criticism (New York: Norton, 1975), p. 187.

84. , . 183.

85. Hannah Arendt The Public and the Private Realm in Hannah Arendt The Human Condition (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1958), pp. 22-78.

86. Niklas Luhmann The Representation of Society Within Society, Current Sociology, vol. 35, no. 2 (1987), pp. 101-8.

87. Stanley Rosen Nihilism (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1978), pp. 206-13.

88. Arendt Public and Private Realm, p. 51. /241/

89. Niklas Luhmann Tautology and Paradox in the Self-representation of Society, Sociological Inquiry, vol. 6, no. 1 (1988), pp. 226-37). : Charles Taylor Sources of the Self: The Making of Modern Identity (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1989).

90. - Gunther Roth Charisma and the Counterculture in G. Roth and W. Schulchter Max Webers Vision of History (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1979), pp. 119-43, Luhmann Tautology and Paradox .






4. , , -:


1. Intifada .: Zeev Schiff and Ehud Yaari Intifada, the Palestinian Uprising: Israels Third Front (New York: Simon & Schuster, 1989).

2. Miklos Szabo Problems of Hungarian National Consciousness in the Second Half of the Twentieth Century, Social Research, vol. 55, no. 4 (1988), p. 699.

3. Hannah Arendt Origins of Totalitarianism(New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich. 1973), pp. 269-79.

4. .: Ha-Tehiya Platform: Israel Will Encourage the Emigation of Arabs from Judea, Samaria and Gaza, HaAretz, August 31, 1988 (Hebrew); Ha-Tehiya and Tzomet: Find the Difference, Ha-Aretz, September 2.1988 (Hebrew); Kach A manifesto from the Kach Movement and Rabbi Meir Kahana, Jerusalem (n. d.), 1988, (Hebrew); Moledet, Information Sheet # 1, Ramat HaSharon (n. d.), 1988, (Hebrew); Tzomet Platform Principles (n. d.), 1988 (n. p.) (Hebrew); E. Sprinzak Kach and Kahana: The Emergence of Jewish QuasiFascism in A. Arian and M. Shamir (ed.) The Elections in Israel (TelAviv: Ramot, 1984).

5. Erik Cohen Ethnicity and Legitimation in Contemporary Israel, Jerusalem Quarterly, no. 28 (1983), pp. 111-24.

6. .: Sami Samoocha Minority Status and Ethnic Democracy, Ethnic and Racial Studies. 1990, and S. Samoocha Arabs and Jews in Israel, vol. 1 (Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 1989). Vol. 2 is forthcoming, 1992.

7. Charles Liebman and Eliezer Dov-Yehiya Israels Civil Religion, Jerusalem Quarterly, no. 23 (1982), pp. 37-69.

8. R. Coleman and L. Rainwater Social Standing in America: New Dimensions (New York: Basic Books, 1978). /242/

9. Stein Rokkan Dimensions of State-Formation and Nation-Building: A Possible Paradigm for Research on Variations Within Western Europe in C. Tilly (ed.) The Formation of Nation-Slates in Western Europe (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press), 1975.

10. S. N. Eisenstad Center Formation: Protest Movements and Class Structure in Europe and the United States (London: Pinter Press, 1987), p. 11.

11. , . 15.

12. Otto Gierke Political Theory of the Middle Ages (Boston: Beacon, 1958), p. 63.

13. Jeno Szucs Three Historical Regions of Europe in Keane ed., Civil Society and the State, p. 307.

14. Gierke Political Theory, p. 64.

15. Szucs Three Historical Regions, p. 319.

16. George Schopflin The Political Traditions of Eastern Europe, in Daedalus special issue. Eastern Europe, Central Europe, Europe, Winter, 1990, p. 68. ֳ .

17. , . 63.

18. , . 66.

19. Andrew Janos Tne Politics of Backwardness in Hungary 18251945 (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1982), pp. 65-66.

20. .

21. Perry Andersen Lineages of the Absolutist State (London: New Left Books, 1974).

22. .: L. Tivey (ed.) The Nation-State (Oxford: Robertson, 1980); B. Anderson Imagined Communities(London: Verso, 1983); J. Breuilly Nationalism and the State (Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1982).

23. Daniel Lerner The Passing of Traditional Societies (New York: Free Press, 1985).

24. Anthony Smith State Making and Nation Building in J. Hall (ed.) States in History (Oxford: Basil Blackwell, 1986), pp. 228-63.

25. Rokkan Dimensions of State-Formation (supra, n. 9), p. 572.

26. Janos Politics of Backwardness, p. 69.

27. Schpflin Political Traditions, p. 71.

28. Gyorgy Csepeli Competing Patterns of National Identity in Post Communist Hungary, Media, Culture and Society, vol. 13 (1991), p. 328.

29. Ivo Banac Political Change and National Diversity, Daedalus, Eastern Europe (supra, n. 16), pp. 141-60.

30. Colin Crouch Sharing Public Space: States and Organized Interests in Western Europe in Hall States in History, p. 180. /243/

31. Charles Taylor Modes of Civil Society, Public Culture, vol. 3, no. 1 (Fall 1990), pp. 95-118.

32. Vincent Wright Fragmentation and Cohesion in the Nation-State, France 1870-1871. The Construction and Reconstructing of Centre-Periphery Relation in Europe, Jerusalem, June 1984. . The Government and Politics of France (New York: Holmes & Meier, 1978).

33. Jose Casanova Church, State, Nation and Civil Society in Spain and Poland in S. Arjoumand (ed.) The Political Dimensions of Religion (Berkeley: University of California Press, forthcoming). . : The Deprivatization of Catholicism: Church, Nation, Civil Society and the State in Poland , Religion and Marxism in Eastern Europe, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, October 1988.

34. Crouch Sharing Public Space, p. 182.

35. .: Charles Maier Fictitious bonds... of Wealth and Law on the Theory and Practice of Interest Representation in S. Berger (ed.) Organizing Interests in Western Europe (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1981).

36. George Schopflin Obstacles to Liberalism in Post-Communist Polities, Eastern Europe Politics and Society, vol. 5, no. 1 (1991), pp. 189-194.

37. Taylor Modes of Civil Society, p. 15.

38. Anthony Giddens The Consequences of Modernity (Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 1990), p. 97.

39. ., : . Deutch Social Mobilization and Political Development, American Political Science Review, vol. 55.1961; S. N. Eisenstadt Modernization, Protest and Change (Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall, 1966); S. Huntingon Political Order and Changing Societies (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1968); A. Inkeles and D. Smith Becoming Modern: Individual Change in Six Developing Countries (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1974); Talcott Parsons Societies: Evolutionary and Comparative Perspectives (Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall, 1966).

40. Consequences of Modernity .: Anthony Giddens Modernity and Self-Identity (Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 1991).

41. Niklas Luhmann Familiarity, Confidence, Trust: Problems and Alternatives in D. Gambetta (ed.) Trust; Making and Breaking Cooperative Relations (Oxford: Basil Blackwell, 1988), pp. 94-107.

42. S. N. Eisenstadt and L. Roniger Patrons, Clients and Friends (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1984), esp. pp. 1-42.

43. Edward Shils The Virtues of Civil Society, , . 35.

44. (Elemer Hankiss) , TARKI .

45. , 1982 , , /244/ . 1990 , , , .

46. ֳ Elemer Hankiss Between Two Worlds, Research Review on Hungarian Social Sciences Granted by the Government: Changing Values of Hungarian Society (Budapest, 1989), p. 43.

47. He , Almond Verba, The Civic Culture (New York: Sage, 1989). , 볿 , ͳ, 볿 . , per se; (no ) ( ), . ͳ, , 1948 1959 1959 1970 , . .: Daniel Conradt Changing German Political Culture in G. Almond and S. Verba The Civil Culture Revisited (New York: Sage, 1989), pp. 212-72.

48. Csepeli Competing Patterns (supra, n. 28), pp. 334-38.

49. , . 336.

50. Andras Sajo Rights Awareness in Hungary in Changing Values in Hungarian Society (supra, n. 28), pp. 27-38.

51. , . 50.

52. G. Csepeli and A. Orkeny The Twilight of State Socialism (London: Pinter Press, forthcoming).

53. (Gyorgy Suranyi), 1991. , 򳿻 ( , ) 1991. , , , . , , , . . , , .

54. David Stark Privatization in Hungary: From Plan to Market or from Plan to Clan, Eastern Europe Politics and Society, vol. 4, no. 3 (1990), pp. 351-92.

55. , ( 1991). : , -/245/. , , , 25 , , , 10 , 25 , , . , 򳺿 䳿, , . : , , Eotvos Lorand , .

56. , , , . .

57. Keith Hart Kinship, Contract and Trust: The Economic Organization of Migrants in an African City Slum in Gambetta Trust (supra, n. 41), pp. 176-93.

58. : John Dunn Elusive Community: The Political Theory of Charles Taylor in John Dunn Interpreting Political Responsibility (Princeton, NJ): Princeton University Press, 1990), pp. 179-92.

59. Giddens Consequences of Modernity (supra, n. 38).

60. , . 115.

61. Jurgen Habennas Justice and Solidarity: On the Discussion Concerning State 6 in M. Kelly (ed.) Hermeneutics and Critical Theory in Ethics and Politics (Cambridge: MIT Press, 1990), pp. 32-51.

62. : Karl Olivercrona Law as Fact (London: Steve, 1971), pp. 175-90.

63. A. I. Meldon Rights and Persons (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1980), p. 9.

64. , . 43.

65. Leo Strauss Natural Right and History (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1973), p. 131.

66. Adam Ferguson An Essay on the History of Civil Society, 5 ed. (London, 1782), p. 364.

67. , . 454.

68. Claus Offe Challenging the Boundaries of Institutional Politics: Social Movements Since the 1960s in Charles Maier (ed.) Changing Boundaries of the Political (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1987), p. 102, n. 3.

69. . Foulard - /246/ , , (hejab ) , . , . .: Sondra-Hale The Politics of Gender in the Middle East in S. Morgan (ed.) Gender and Anthropology (Washington, DC: American Anthropological Association, 1989), pp. 246-67.

70. Andrew Arato Civil Society Against the State; Poland 1980-1981, Telos, vol. 47 (1981); Andrew Arato and Jean Cohen Social Movements, Civil Society and the Problem of Sovereignty, Praxis International, vol. 4, no. 3; Jean Cohen Strategy or Identity: New Theoretical Paradigms and Contemporary Social Movements, Social Research, vol. 52, no. 4 (1985), pp. 663-716; Jean Cohen and Andrw Arato Civil Society and Social Theory, (Cambridge: MIT Press, 1992).

71. Cohen Strategy or Identity.

72. , . 100.

73. , . 92.

74. Seyla Benhabib Critique, Norm and Utopia (New York: Columbia University Press, 1986), p. 279.

75. Carole Gould On the Conception of Common Interest: Between Procedure and Substance in Kelly Hermeneutics (supra, no. 61), p. 264; Habermas Justice and Solidarity, p. 35.

76. Benhabib Critique, p. 322.

77. ֳ, , , , 3 (. 78 3).

78. Cornelius Casloriadis Value, Equality, Justice, Politics: From Marx to Aristotle and from Aristotle to Ourselves in Cornelius Castoriadis Crossroads in the Labyrinth (London: Harvester Press, 1984), pp. 260-340.

79. (Rawls) , , .: Seyla Benhabib In the Shadow of Aristotle and Hegel in Kelly Hermeneutics, pp. 1-31.

80. Habermas Justice and Solidarity, pp. 41 46.

81. , . 47-48.

82. Benhabib Critique, pp. 340-43.

83. , . , , (Jurgen Habermas The Theory of Communicative Action, vol. 2 (Boston: Beacon Press, 1987), pp. 199-300).

84. Michael Waltzer The Idea of Civil Society, Dissent, Spring 1991, p. 303.

85. . ֳ , , -/247/ ; , ; ... , . ( ) . , , , , -, , ( ) . . , - ( ), . - , , , , . , . .






1. Robert Dahl Polyarchy: Participation and Opposition(New Haven: Yale University Press, 1971); Arendt Lijphart Democracies: Patterns of Majoritarian and Consensual Government in Twenty-one Countries (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1984).

2. Talcott Parsons The Structure of Social Action, vol. 2. (New York: Free Press, 1968), pp. 658-72.

3. William Morris A Dream of John Ball (London: Longmans, Green, 1938), pp. 39-40.










       


:

:   , . -- . , , , , , , . . . . )



 


i ii, ii Ctrl+Enter.

I.   IX-XVIII .