˲    в         ˲    ˲    ˲ò            



[ . . .: , 1994. .200-216.]

       





̲




1. ֲ Ͳ ز


1. Sophocles (1947, 55).

2. Sophocles (1947, 71 124).

3. Sophocles (1-947, 66, 74, 79, 117 121).

4. ; () .

5. . Tilly (1963); . Hechter and Levi (1979).

6. Tiers État, , Cobban (1965); Kautsky (1962, Introduction); . Breuilly (1962, ch. 15), .

7. . Frye (1966, 249 50). . Weber (1965, ch. 8).

8. . . Spiro: Religion: Problems of definition and explanation, Banton (1966).

9. . Hitti (1928, 12) . Z. (J. W.) Hirschberg: The Druses, y Arberry (1969).

10. . : Armstrong (1982, chs. 3, 7).

11. 㳿, , , . Sarkisyanz (1964); . de Suva (1981) . . P. Wormald: The emergence of Anglo-Saxon Kingdoms, L. Smith (1984).

12. . Finley, (1986, ch. 7); . Fondation Hardt (1962).

13. . Kemilainen 1964).

14. 䳿 . Schama (1987, ch. 1); 𳿻 . A. D. Smith (1981b).

15. Schama (1987, ch. 2); XIX . . E.Weber (1979).

16. ., , Almond and Pye (1965).

17. Nairn (1977, chs. 2, 9) . . Gellner and Ionescu (1970). /185/

18. . Fishman (1968); , 䳿 㳿, . Mitchison (1980).

19. . Lartichaux (1977); . Poliakov (1974, ch. 2).

20. . Deutsch (1966, ch. 1), Rustow (1967, ch. 1), A. D. Smith (1971, ch. 7) Connor (1978).

21. ., , Tivey (1980).

22. . Connor (1972). . Wiberg (1983).

23. . Johnson (1968) Mayall (1984).

24. , Gellner (1983).

25. Klausner (1960) .

26. . Kedourie (1960). Neuberger (1986, ch. 3) .

27. Kedourie (1960) (1971, Introduction).







2. Ͳ ֲί Ҳ


1. Kedourie (1960) Breuilly (1982).

2. . Paul Brass Taylor and Yapp (1979) A. D. Smith (1968a, ch. 1).

3. . . Lewis (1968, ch. 10); Paul Brass (1985).

4. . Horowitz (1985, chs. 1 2) A. D. Smith (1986a, ch. 2).

5. . Van den Berghe (1967).

6. ., , Dobzhansky (1962), Banton and Harwood (1975) Pex (1986).

7. Horowitz (1985, ch. 2); . Schermerhorn (1970, ch. 1).

8. . Tudor (1972, ch. 3); . Steinberg (1976).

9. Armstrong (1982, ch. 2).

10. . Gellner (1973); , , , . Barth (1969, Introduction).

11. , , , (, , ) , /186/ ; . Armstrong (1982, passim).

12. Horowitz (1985, 64 74).

13. . Alty (1982); Finley (1986, ch. 7).

14. : Coleman (1958, Appendix); . Anderson, von der Mehden and Young (1967).

15. . Horowitz (1985, 51 4, 66 82); A. D. Smith (1984b).

16. . McKay (1982).

17. . Cambridge History of Iran (1983, Vol. III, ch. 1).

18. . Lang (1980); Armstrong (1982, ch. 7).

19. Weber (1968, Vol. I, Part 2, ch. 5, Ethnic Groups).

20. . Tilly (1975, Introduction); . Mann (1986).

21. . Tilly (1975, Tilly and Finer); . A. D. Smith (1981c), Marwick (1974).

22. . Armstrong (1982, chs. 3, 7) A. D. Smith (1968a chs. 2 5).

23. . Woodhouse (1984, 36 8); . Ostrogorski (1956, 93 4, 192 4); . Campbell and Sherrard (1968, ch. 1).

24. . Baynes and Moss (1969, Introduction) i Armstrong (1982, 174 81); Sherrard (1959).

25. Carras (1983).

26. . Kenrick and Puxon (1972); 1915 . . Nalbandian (1963).

27. . Kuper (1981) Horowitz (1982).

28. . Moscati (1973, Part II, 168 9); , .

29. . Roux (1964, 301 4); . Cambridge Ancient History (1971, Vol. I, Part 2, ch. 23).

30. . Saggs (1984, 117 21); Roux (1964, 374).

31. , ᒺ , ; . Liverani Larsen (1970). . Roux (1964, 278, 290); A. D, Smith (1986a, 100 4).

32. . J.M. Cook (1983, 55 6, 100); por. Oates (1979).

33. . Werblowski Ben-Sassogn and Ettinger (1971); . Seltzer (1980) Yerushalmi (1983).

34. Armstrong (1976) (1982, ch. 7). /187/

35. . Strizower (1962, ch. 5); ﳿ . Kessler (1985).

36. . Grimal (1968, 211 41).

37. . Arnakis (1963).

38. . Seltzer (1980, 77 111); . Neusner (1981). . Meyer (1967).

39. . Frazee (1969) Kitromilides (1979).

40. . Tcherikover (1970) Hengel (1980).

41. . Cambridge History of Iran (1983, Vol. III/1, ch. 3, and III/2, ch. 27) Frye (1966, ch. 6).

42. ., , Saunders (1978); . Keddie (1981).

43. , 19, 5 6; , 7, 6 13.

44. OBrien (1988); . Armstrong (1982).

45. 㳿 . Coulborn and Strayer (1962) Eisenstadt (1963); . Armstrong (1982, chs. 3, 7) A. D. Smith (1986a, chs. 3, 5).

46. Armstrong (1982, ch. 7).

47. regna . Reynolds (1984, ch. 8).

48. . Seton-Watson (1977, ch. 2), , .

49. . Masur (1966); Anderson (1983, ch. 3).

50. , , , , ; 㳿, . 4. . Rotberg (1967) Horowitz (1985).






3. ֲ


1. . Reiss (1955) (Volkseele); , , . Walek-Czerneski (1929).

2. Kedourie (1960) Breuilly (1982); . A. D. Smith (1988a).

3. . Gellner (1983, ch. 2).

4. - . Roux (1964, 105); . Kohn (1957). ? ; . Connor (1990). /188/

5. ., , Frankfort (1954, ch. 4) David (1982).

6. . Beyer (1959); 㳿 . Grimal (1968, 211 41).

7. . Moscati (1962, 110); . Pritchard (1958, 173 5). . Trigger et al. (1983, 188 202).

8. . Alty (1982); . Huxley (1966) Burn (1960, 6 7, 48 50, 98 100, 210 14).

9. . . Schwabl . Ditter Fondation Hardt (1062) Andrewes Lloyd-Jones (1965); . Forrest (1966) Burn (1978, chs. 9 10).

10. . Tcherikover (1970); VII . . . . Seltzer (1980, chs. 2 3); , Zeitlin (1984).

11. . Brandon (1967, ch. 2) Maccoby (1974); . Zeitlin (1988, ch. 10).

12. D. . Smith (1974).

13. . Werblowski Ben-Sasson and Ettinger (1971) Neusner (1981); . Avi-Yonah (1976), Alon (1980, Vol. 1, chs. I, 4, 7 8).

14. , , , , , , , , .

15. regna . Reynolds (1983) WallaceHadrill (1985).

16. , Seton-Watson (1977, chs. 2 3); . Davies (1982), Pipes (1977); . Portal (1969).

17. XVI ., . Marcu (1976); . Breuilly (1982, Introduction). . Tipton (1972) Reynolds (1984, ch. 8).

18. . Duncan (1970); Eidgenossenschaft . Thiirer (1970).

19. . Davis (1976), Reynolds (1984, ch. 8).

20. A. D. Smith (1986a, ch. 4); . Zeitlin (1984, chs. 5).

21. . Frye (1966, ch. 6); . Herrmann (1977). V . . . , , /189/ ; . Runciman (1947).

22. . Lewis (1970); . : Saunders (1978).

23. ³ . Lang (1980, chs. 7 8); . Nalbandian (1963).

24. VII . . Frye (1966, ch. 7); ( ) , VII . . ., . Atiyah (1968, Part I).

25. . Levine (1965, ch. 2) Ullendorff (1973, ch. 4).

26. () . Tilly (1975); . Seton-Watson (1977, ch. 2).

27. . Geoffrey of Monmouth (1966) Mason (1985).

28. , . Corrigan and Sayer (1985); . Brooke (1969), , (1972), - .

29. . MacDougall (1982); XVI . . Corrigan and Sayer (1985, chs. 2 3).

30. . Reynolds (1984, 276 89); . Bloch (1961, II, 431 7).

31. . Armstrong (1982, 152 9); . A. Lewis (1974, 57 70).

32. . . Weber (1979); . Rickard (1974), Lartichaux (1977).

33. . Atkinson (1960); . Poliakov (1974, ch. 1).

34. . Payne (1971) Greenwood Esman (1977); Llobera (1983).

35. . Bendix (1964), Tilly (1975, Introduction and Conclusion); . Poggi (1978).

36. , , ͳ; , , , , 糺 ; . Hamerow (1958) Kohn (1965, ch. 8).

37. . Wallerstein (1974, ch. 3) Tivey Navarri Tivey (1980).

38. . Gouldner (1979) Anderson (1983).

39. . Strayer (1963) A. D. Smith (1968, chs. 6 7).

40. . Arnakis (1963), , A. D.Smith (1973b), XIX .

41. , , . Haim (1962); . Rosenthal (1965). /190/

42. . Sharabi (1970); . Jankowski (1979).

43. . Kedourie (1971, Introduction) . D. Smith (1971, ch. 10).

44. . tossian Kautsky (1962) A. D. Smith (1979, ch. 2). , 䳿, , , , 䳿 ; . July (1967) Geiss (1974).

45. . Kedourie (1971, Introduction). XIX . ; . Thaden (1964).

46. . A. D. Smith (1984a); Hobsbawm and Ranger (1983).

47. .: Steinberg (1976).

48. . Shippindale (1983, chs. 6 7).

49. . A. D. Smith (1984b) (1986, ch. 8).

50. Hutchinson (1978); . Lyons (1970).

51. . , 1907 . (Branch, 1985); .: Jutikkala (1962, ch. 8) . Klinge Mitchison (1980).

52. . Honko (1985), ; ѳ . Layton (1985), - . Arts Council (1986, 104 15 Sarajas-Korte Klinge).

53. . Sugar (1980), Paul Brass (1985).

54. . , , ﳿ . , . Markovitz (1977, chs. 2 3).

55. , , , , ; (, , ) , , - , (. Breuilly, 1982, Introduction).

56. . Kohn (1976b) A. D. Smith (1981b). /191/






4. ֲ˲ Ͳ


1. Gellner (1964, 168).

2. Kedourie (1960, 1).

3. 볿 . Kohn (1940) Christopher Hill Linda Colley Samuel (1989, vol. I). . July (1967) Geiss (1974); . Binder (1964).

4. .: Hutchinson (1987, 158 61, 285 90).

5. . Deutsch (1966, ch. 1), Rustow (1967, ch. 1), A. D. Smith (1971, ch. 7) Connor (1978).

6. ֳ A. D. Smith

(1973, 2. 1).

7. . Connor (1972) Tivey (1980, Introduction).

8. . Akzin (1964, ch. 3).

9. Shaftesbury (1712, 397 8); . Macmillan (1986, ch. 3).

10. Rousseau (1915, II, 319, Projet Corse).

11. Berlin (1976, 182); . Barnard (1965).

12. . Horowitz (1985, ch. 6); Lewis (1983).

13. . Brookner (1980, ch. 5) Crow (1978); fraternité . Cobban (1957 63, Vol. I, Part 3) Kohn (1967b).

14. . . Weber (1979); . Apter (1963) Rotberg (1967).

15. Josephus: Jewich War, II, 53, Yadin, Y. (1966), Masada, London, Weidenfeld & Nicolson; Thucydides: Peloponnesian War, a II, 71, 2.

16. . Kedourie (1960, chs. 2 4) ; . A. D. Smith (1971, ch. 1).

17. ; . Doob (1964), . Dowd (1948), . Mosse (1976), . Thompson (1985).

18. . Breuilly (1982, ch. 16); . Mitchell (1931).

19. , Debray (1977); . Anderson (1983, ch. 1).

20. . Horowitz (1985, chs. 1 2); /192/ . Herbert (1972).

.21. Kedourie (1960) (1971), Sathyamurthy (1983) Breuilly (1982).

22. 㳿 . Snyder (1954), Seton-Watson (1965), Symmons-Symonolewicz (1965) (1970); . Gellner (1983).

23. Kohn (1955) (1967a).

24. . Hutchinson (1987, ch. 1).

25. . Pulzer (1964) Mosse (1964); , 糺, . Gray (1971).

26. . Plamenatz Kamenka (1976).

27. A. D. Smith (1973, 3, 4 7).

28. . Nolte (1969); . Mouzelis (1986).

29. . Kohn (1960) Davies (1982, Vol. II. ch. 1); . Rozanow and Smulikowska (1979).

30. . Kedourie (1971, Introduction); . Crane Adenwalla Sakai (1961) .

31. . Tipton (1971); . Schama (1987, 1/2).

32. ., , : Cemilainen (1964), ; . Barnard (1965, ch. 1).

33. Richardson (1725, 222 4).

34. W. F. Church Ranum (1975).

35. La Font de Saint-Yenne (1752, 305 6); . Grow (1985, ch. 4).

36. Barry (1809, II, 248).

37. . Zernatto (1944); . Bendix (1964).

38. . Poliakov (1974, ch. 8); Nisbet-<1969).

39. . Honour (1968).

40. Rousseau (1924 34, X, 337 8), Cobban (1964); . Cohler (1970).

41. . Kohn (1967a, 238 45) Baron (1960, 24 8). - . Rosenblum (1967, ch. 2) Herbert (1972).

42. . Robson-Scott (1965).

43. . Macmillan (1986, ch. 3); 䳺 . Newman (1987, ch. 5), . A. D. Smith (1979b).

44. . Berlin (1976).

45. . Porter and Teich (1988); /193/ XIX . . Hobsbawm Hobsbawm and Ranger (1983).

46. .; Rosenblum (1967) A. D. Smith (1987) (1989); . La France (1989).

47. . Einstein (1974, 266 9. 274 82); . Vaughan (1978, ch. 3); . Home (1984). , , , , ; , , .

48. . Shils (1972) Gella (1976).

49. . Baron (1960, ch. 2) Anderson (1983, ch. 5).

50. . Kedourie (1960); Breuilly (1982, Introduction chs. 15 16).

51. . Reiss (1955) Kedourie (1960); . Gelner (1983).

52. . Cobban (1957 63, vol. I, Part 3) Palmer (1940); cahiers de doléances 1789 p. . Shafer (1938).

53. , , . Kautsky (1962, Introduction) Worsley (1964). , . , Kedourie (1971, Introduction), .

54. . Hertzberg (1960, Introduction); . A. D. Smith (1981a, ch. 5).

55. . Ayal (1966); Kedourie (1960) (1971, Introduction); . Breuilly (1982, 28 35).

56. . A. D. Smith (1971, ch. 10).







5. Ͳ ֲ?


1. . Tilly (1975, Introduction Conclusion) Seton-Watson (1977, chs. 2 3).

2. . inter alia, Corrigan and Sayer (1984, chs. 2 4); Newman (1987, chs. 5 6); Hill Colley Samuel (1989, Vol. I).

3. . Pipes (1977, chs. 9 10); . Seton-Watson (1967).

4. . Dunlop (1985) Pospilovsky Ramet (1989).

5. ., , G. E. Smith (1989).

6. . Mardin (1965); Bekres (1964) Karpat Brass (1985).

7. . Lewis (1968, ch. 10); Kushner (1976). /194/

8. . Landau (1981).

9. . Ullendorff (1973); .: Halliday and Molyneux (1981).

10. . J. Hall (1962) A. Lewis (1974).

11. . Brown (1955).

12. nihonjinron . Yoshino (1989).

13. . Alavi (1972); . Saul (1979).

14. . Horowitz (1985, ch. 2); . Asiwaju Hargreaves Asiwaju (1985).

15. W. H. Lewis (1965), Crowder (1968).

16. . Wallerstein (1965) Lloyd (1966); . Geiss (1974) Kedourie (1971, Introduction).

17. . W.H.Lewis (1965); Geis (1974, ch. 15); Legum (1964). . Enloe (1980).

18. . inter alia, J. H. Kautsky (1962, Introduction), Kedourie (1971, Introduction) Seton-Watson (1977).

19. . Kedourie (1971, Introduction); McCulley (1966).

20. , - , 糿 , ; . Neuberger (1986). . Geiss (1974).

21. . Hodgkin (1964); 䳿 . Heimsath (1964).

22. . Sharabi (1970); Vital (1975).

23. . Kedourie (1971, Introduction), Kushner (1976) Hutchinson (1987).

24. . Vatikiotis (1969); Jankowski (1979).

25. . Sarkisyanz (1964).

26. . Rothchild Olorunsola (1972); , , . Ucko (1983).

27. . Hodgkin (1975, Introduction); . Panter-Brick (1970) Markovitz (1977).

28. . Gutteridge (1975).

29. . Binder (1964); . Sharabi (1966).

30. . Harrison Esposito Banuazizi and Weiner (1986). . Harrison (1960) Brass (1974).

31. . McCulley (1966) D. E. Smith (1963).

32. ; . Binder Harrison Banuazizi and Weiner (1986). . Neuberger (1976). /195/

33. . Legum (1964) Neuberger (1986).

34. . Young Brass (1985); . Apter (1963).

35. . Davidson, Slovo and Wilkinson (1976); . Lyon (1980) -.

36. dz . Chamberlin (1979, 27 35); . A. D. Smith (1981b).

37. . Austin (1964).

38. , , . Gellner (1983); , 㳿 .

39. . Lartichaux (1977), . Weber (1979).

40. . Markovitz (1977, ch. 6).

41. Mannheim (1940); J. H. Kautsky (1962, Introduction); Gouldner (1979).

42. , Seton-Watson (1960), Kiernan A. D. Smith (1976) Breuilly (1982, ch. 15); . Zubaida (1978).

43. . Hunter (1962), Gella (1976) гnard and Hamilton (1984).

44. ., , Hodgkin (1956).







6. ֲ˲


1. . Anderson (1983, ch. 6); . Sugar and Lederer (1969).

2. , . Alavi (1972); . R. Hall (1979).

3. . Esman (1977) Allardt (1979).

4. . Deutsch (1966); . Connor (1972).

5. Connor (1984a).

6. . (1982); . Elviken (1931) Mitchison (1980, 11 29); Գ .: Jutikkala (1962); XIX . .

7. ϳ , , XIV .; . . Rozanow and Smulikowska (1979). . . 73 75 .

8. Einstein (1947, 266 9, 274 82) Raynor (1976, ch. 8). . . 99 101 . /196/

9. Weber (1968, Part 1/2, ch. 5, p. 396).

10. . Kedourie (1971, Introduction).

11. . Gouldner (1979). . Barnard (1965, ch. 1) Anderson (1983, ch. 5).

12. . Hairn (1977, ch. 9); Pech (1976).

13. . Lyons (1979); Գ䳿 . Laitinen (1985) Boulton Smith (1985).

14. . , Kedourie (1960, chs. 5 6); Pearson (1983).

15. ., , Berkes (1964); . Kitromilides (1980).

16. . Edmonds (1971) iChaliand (1980, 8 46).

17. , , , . Selig Harrison: Ethnicity and Political Stalemate in Pakistan Banuazizi and Weiner (1986, 267 98).

18. : , . , ; .: Cliffe (1989, 131 47). .: Quandt et al. (1973).

19. . V. Olorunsola: Nigeria Olorunsola (1972); Markovitz (1977, ch. 8). .: D. Rothchild: Kenya Olorunsola (1972). 糿 . Brown (1989, 1 17).

20. , , , , , ᒺ . ҳ ; ; . Gellner (1983, ch. 5). , , . King (1976).

21. . Horowitz (1985, ch. 6). ̳ , .

22. ֳ . Banuazizi and Weiner (1986).

23. 糿 . Bucheit (1981), Wiberg (1983) Mayall (1985). /197/

24. . Svensson (1978). . Whitaker and Jordan (1966).

25. . Chaliand (1980) Entessar (1989, 83 100). ͳ . Hodgkin (1975, Introduction).

26. , . Hutchinson (1987) Cliffe (1989, 131 47).

27. . Connor Lijphart Esman (1977); Allardt (1979).

28. . Vardys (1989, 53 76).

29. . MacCormick (1970) Webb (1977); . A. D. Smith (1986c).

30. . Reece, Hechter Levi Stone (1979); . Connor (1984a).

31. . Szporluk (1973); G. E. Smith (1985).

32. Nairn (1977, chs. 2, 9), .

33. . A. D. Smith (1986a, chs. 7 8); . Brock (1976) Hutchinson (1987).

34. , , . Branch (1985); 䳿 . Lyons (1979); . (1974) Beer Esman (1977).

35. . Schama (1987) Hill (1968).

36. . A. D. Smith (1981a, chs. 1, 9); . Conversi (1990).

37. Hechter (1975) .

38. , ; . Coulon (1978).







7. ֲί Ҳ


1. , , ; , , Kolarz (1954) ; May (1982) .

2. . Breuilly (1982, 8 11). . Johnson (1969).

3. Daniel Bell (1975) .

4. 㳿 .: Parsons /198/ (1966) Smelser (1968); . Cummins (1980) Connor (1984b).

5. , Lander . . Steinberg (1976).

6. . Stavrianos (1961, ch. 9) Singleton (1985, ch. 5).

7. . Schöpflin (1980) Djilas (1984).

8. . Fedoseyev et al. (1977); Bennigsen (1979).

9. . Goldhagen (1968) G. E. Smith (1985).

10. . Dunlop (1985), Ramet (1989).

11. . Kilson (1975); . Gans (1979).

12. . Burrows (1982).

13. . Tuveson (1968) OBrien (1988).

14. ͳ XIX .; . Kahan (1968). . Haas (1964).

15. , , . Camps (1965). 1960- pp., Benthen van den Berghe (1966). , , ?

16. Galtung (1973), . , , , . . , ; . A. D. Smith (1988b). , , ; .

17. . Barraclough (1967) Hinsley (1973).

18. . Bell (1973) Kumar (1978).

19. , , . Melucci (1989, chs. 3 4).

20. . Richmond (1984); Melucci (1989, 89 92).

21. . Warren (1980, ch. 7); . Enloe (1986). /199/

22. (Mattelaart, Morley, Hall), , . Schlesinger (1987).

23. - . Gouldner (1979).

24. . Hobsbawm and Ranger (1983, Hobsbawm) Home (1984). . Armstrong (1982, ch. 5).

25. , , . Anderson (1983); . Samuel (1989, Vol. III).

26. . Anderson (1983, ch. 1); . Rosenblum (1967, ch. 2).

27. . Branch (1985) Honko (1985).

28. . Mosse (1976) Home (1984); . Rosenblum (1967).

29. . Brock (1976); . Pearson (1983).

30. . Zeine (1958); . Yalouris (1980); . Giurescu (1967).

31. . Wallerstein (1974, ch. 3) Tilly (1975).

32. . Stavrianos (1975); . Markovitz (1977) A. D. Smith (1983, chs. 3, 5).

33. . A. D. Smith (1981a, ch. 6).

34. . Connor (1978); Tivey (1980).

35. . Beitz (1979, Part II).

36. . Kohn (1960).

37. . Landau (1981).

38. . Geiss (1974).

39. . Armstrong (1982, ch. 8); . Edwards (1985, ch. 2).

40. ., , de Rougemont (1965). /200/











˲Բ


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