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[Ukrainian Statehood in the Twentieth Century: Historical and Political Analysis. Kyiv: Political Thought, 1996. 448 p.]

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UKRAINIAN STATEHOOD IN THE TWENTIETH CENTURY
HISTORICAL AND POLITICAL ANALYSIS


KYIV

POLITICAL THOUGHT

1996



It's terrible to lie in chains

And rot in dungy deep,

But it's still worse,

when you are free,

To sleep, and sleep, and sleep...


Taras SHEVCHENKO



Contents

A Word to the Reader . . . . . . . . . . xi

Section I. Ukrainian Statehood: Ideas, Concepts, and Models, 1900-1990 . . . . . . . . . . 1

Chapter 1. Socialist and Communist Models . . . . . . . . . . 3

1. Socialism in Modern Ukrainian Political Thought . . . . . . . . . . 3

2. Nineteenth Century Origins; The Socialism of Mykhailo Drahomanov . . . . . . . . . . 6

3. Models of Ukrainian Statehood During the Revolution . . . . . . . . . . 11

4. European Socialism and the Ukrainian Question . . . . . . . . . . 14

5. Mykhailo Hrushevsky: What Kind of Ukraine Do We Want? . . . . . . . . . . 18

6. The Directory: Dead-End of Ukrainian Socialism . . . . . . . . . . 24

7. National Cultural Autonomy . . . . . . . . . . 25

8. The Leninist Model . . . . . . . . . . 27

9. The Schismatics of the Ukrainian Revolution . . . . . . . . . . 28

10. "A Model Soviet Republic" . . . . . . . . . . 32

11. The Stalinist Variant of Proletarian Internationalism . . . . . . . . . . 36

Chapter 2. Ethnocratic Concepts . . . . . . . . . . 39

1. Mykola Mikhnovsky Romantic of the Ukrainian Idea . . . . . . . . . . 39

2. The Main Ideas of Dmytro Dontsov's Active Nationalism . . . . . . . . . . 42

3. Active Nationalism as the Ideological Basis of the Organization of Ukrainian Nationalists (OUN) . . . . . . . . . . 45

4. The Ethnocratic State of Mykola Stsiborsky . . . . . . . . . . 47

5. The Transformations of Integral Nationalism . . . . . . . . . . 49

Chapter 3. Classocratic View . . . . . . . . . . 53

1. The Nation and the State . . . . . . . . . . 54

2. The Hetman, the Elite, and the Class of Farmers . . . . . . . . . . 55

3. The Peasant with Sword and Plow . . . . . . . . . . 59

4. Territorial Awareness as State Ideology . . . . . . . . . . 61

5. A Philosopher of Ukrainian Politics . . . . . . . . . . 62

6. Lypynsky on the Threats to Ukrainian Statehood . . . . . . . . . . 63

Chapter 4. The Liberal Idea in Ukraine . . . . . . . . . . 71

1. Dissemination of Liberal Ideas in Ukraine . . . . . . . . . . 72

2. The Priority of Individual Rights . . . . . . . . . . 75

3. The Priority of Law . . . . . . . . . . 76

4. Self-Government . . . . . . . . . . 77

5. The National Idea . . . . . . . . . . 77

6. Basic Characteristics of the Present-Day Ukrainian Liberalism . . . . . . . . . . 78

Chapter 5. The Geopolitical Component of Ukrainian Nation-Building Thought (First Half of the Twentieth Century) . . . . . 83

1. Origins of Ukrainian Political Geography . . . . . . . . . . 83

2. Russia as a Geopolitical Problem . . . . . . . . . . 87

3. Plans for the Future . . . . . . . . . . 89

4. The Eastern Vector of Ukraine's Interests . . . . . . . . . . 91

Chapter 6. The Idea of Statehood in Sociopolitical Thought, 1940-1990 . . . . . . . . . . 95

1. Thought About Statehood in the Underground . . . . . . . . . . 95

2. Ideas of the Sixties Generation . . . . . . . . . . 100

3. Universal Human Values in the Uncensored Thought . . . . . . . . . . 105

4. Totalitarian Institution Against Ukrainian Informal Groups . . . . . . . . . . 111

5. The National Idea and the Democratic Platform in the Communist Party . . . . . . . . . . 114


Section II. Ukraine in Foreign Strategies and Doctrines . . . . . . . . . . 119

Chapter 1. Ukraine in Geopolitical Concepts in the First Third of the Twentieth Century . . . . . . . . . . 121

1. Rudolf Kjellen: Ukraine in World War I . . . . . . . . . . 122

2. Halford John Macinder: Euro-Asia and Ukraine . . . . . . . . . . 124

3. "Middle Europe" and Ukraine . . . . . . . . . . 128

4. Ukraine in the Geopolitical Thinking of Max Weber . . . . . . . . . . 135

5. The "New Europe" of Robert William Seton-Watson . . . . . . . . . . 138

6. Eastern Europe as the Green International . . . . . . . . . . 140

Chapter 2. Ukraine in Polish Foreign-Policy Doctrines . . . . . . . . . . 143

1. Ukrainian Independence as a Threat to Polish Integrity . . . . . . . . . . 145

2. "Poland for the Poles" and the Project of a "Greater Ukraine" . . . . . . . . . . 147

3. Polish-Ukrainian Relations During World War II . . . . . . . . . . 149

4. "Proletarian Internationalism" as a Method of Ethnic Assimilation . . . . . . . . . . 151

5. Pro-Ukrainian Attitudes in Polish Society . . . . . . . . . . 152

6. The Making of International Relations . . . . . . . . . . 154

Chapter 3. Ukraine in Hungarian Plans and Doctrines . . . . . . . . . . 157

1. Hungarian Statehood and the Ukrainian Question in the First Third of the Twentieth Century . . . . . . . . . . 158

2. Hungarian Geopolitical Strategy During the World War II . . . . . . . . . . 164

3. Hungary's Policy Toward Independent Ukraine . . . . . . . . . . 169

Chapter 4. Ukraine and the Ukrainian Question in Czechoslovak Policy . . . . . . . . . . 171

1. The Establishment of the Czechoslovak Republic and the Ukrainian Question . . . . . . . . . . 172

2. The Development of Bilateral Relations . . . . . . . . . . 175

3. Ukrainians in the CSR, the Problems of Transcarpathian Rus . . . . . . . . . . 179

4. Transcarpathian Ukraine During World War II . . . . . . . . . . 182

5. The Ukrainian Issue in Communist Czechoslovakia . . . . . . . . . . 187

6. Independent Ukraine in Czech and Slovak Foreign Policies . . . . . . . . . . 190

Chapter 5. Ukraine in Rumanian Foreign-Policy Concepts . . . . . . . . . . 193

1. Rumanian Policy on Northern Bukovyna During World War I . . . . . . . . . . 193

2. "Rumania for Rumanians" and Ethnically Ukrainian Territories . . . . . . . . . . 196

3. Bucharest's Wartime Geopolitical Projects and Ukraine . . . . . . . . . . 198

4. "National Patriotism" as a Method of Assimilating Ethnic Minorities . . . . . . . . . . 200

5. Current Complications in Rumanian-Ukrainian Relations . . . . . . . . . . 202

Chapter 6. Ukraine in Turkish Foreign Policy . . . . . . . . . . 207

1. Turkish-Ukrainian Contacts During World War I . . . . . . . . . . 207

2. Turkish-Ukrainian Relations in 1918-1921 . . . . . . . . . . 210

3. Soviet Ukraine in Turkish Foreign Policy . . . . . . . . . . 212

4. Restoration and Development of Bilateral Relations at the Present Stage . . . . . . . . . . 214

Chapter 7. Ukraine in German Strategic Plans . . . . . . . . . . 219

1. Ukraine in German Eastern Strategy in the Early Twentieth Century . . . . . . . . . . 219

2. Austro-German Bloc and the Ukrainian Question . . . . . . . . . . 222

3. Hitler's Concept of Lebensraum and Ukraine . . . . . . . . . . 229

4. General Plan Ost . . . . . . . . . . 236

5. German Policy Toward the Organization of Ukrainian Nationalists . . . . . . . . . . 239

6. Ostpolitic FRG in 1949-1989 and Ukraine . . . . . . . . . . 243

7. Independent Ukraine in the Foreign Policy of Reunified Germany . . . . . . . . . . 244

Chapter 8. Ukraine in US Foreign Policy Doctrines . . . . . . . . . . 249

1. Terra incognita . . . . . . . . . . 249

2. On the Fringe of Interests . . . . . . . . . . 252

3. The Ukrainian Question and the Cold War . . . . . . . . . . 254

4. Disintegration of the Soviet Union: Challenge for the United States . . . . . . . . . . 260

5. A Breakthrough in Bilateral Relations . . . . . . . . . . 265

Chapter 9. The Ukrainian Question in Russian Political Strategy . . . . . . . . . . 267

1. The Ukrainian Question in the State Duma . . . . . . . . . . 267

2. The Autocracy's Ukrainian Policy During World War I . . . . . . . . . . 270

3. The Provisional Government and Ukraine . . . . . . . . . . 272

4. Lenin's Declaration of the Rights of the Peoples of Russia . . . . . . . . . . 277

5. Military-Political Alliance as a Form of Reviving the Empire . . . . . . . . . . 281

6. The Period of Contractual Relations . . . . . . . . . . 286

7. "Voluntary Unification" Doctrine and Practice . . . . . . . . . . 289

8. Ukraine in Modern Russian Strategy . . . . . . . . . . 290


Section III. The Ukrainian State and Society at the End of the Century . . . . . . . . . . 297

Chapter 1. The Metamorphoses of Postcommunist Power . . . . . . . . . . 299

1. Totalitarianism and Power: The Need for Rethinking . . . . . . . . . . 299

2. Postcommunist Neototalitarianism: Its Genesis and Special Features . . . . . . . . . . 301

3. The Geopolitical "Genes" of Postcommunist Power . . . . . . . . . . 305

4. The Neototalitarian Paradigm of State-Building in Ukraine . . . . . . . . . . 307

Chapter 2. State-Building in Ukraine: Ways of Legitimation . . . . . . . . . . 315

1. The Problem of Legitimation . . . . . . . . . . 316

2. Ideology and Utopia in Postcommunist Transformations . . . . . . . . . . 318

3. The National Idea, Civil Society, and Political Nation . . . . . . . . . . 323

4. Extricable Etatism . . . . . . . . . . 329

5. The Legacy of the Authoritarian Personality . . . . . . . . . . 332

6. The Secondary Nature of Geopolitical Legitimation . . . . . . . . . . 337

Chapter 3. The Ethnopolitical Dimension of Statehood . . . . . . . . . . 343

1. Ethnic Minorities as a Factor of Geopolitics . . . . . . . . . . 343

2. The Ethnopolitical Reality of Ukraine . . . . . . . . . . 344

Chapter 4. In Search of a Model of Economic Development . . . . . . . . . . 353

1. Strategies of Economic Transformations . . . . . . . . . . 353

2. The Starting Conditions of a Transformation Process . . . . . . . . . . 357

3. The Formation of a Postcommunist Economic System . . . . . . . . . . 359

Chapter 5. Post-Soviet Forms of Social Changes . . . . . . . . . . 367

1. Homo Corporaticus . . . . . . . . . . 368

2. The Soviet Guild . . . . . . . . . . 370

3. The Post-Soviet Fratry . . . . . . . . . . 373

Chapter 6. The Uninvested Fifth World . . . . . . . . . . 381

1. On the Non-Problematic Nature of the Fifth World . . . . . . . . . . 381

2. Orbis Quintus . . . . . . . . . . 384

3. Space and Time . . . . . . . . . . 385

4. The Factual Nature of Citizenship . . . . . . . . . . 389


References . . . . . . . . . . 397

Index of Names . . . . . . . . . . 423

About the Authors . . . . . . . . . . 429









A Word to the Reader



The new Ukrainian state has celebrated its fifth anniversary. But Ukraine has still failed to acquire the distinct features of a civilized country. A deep crisis gripping all spheres of life might well be regarded as the singular specificity of its current national development. This crisis originates in the lack of state strategy, conceptual helplessness, and ill-defined tactics of nation-building. The ship state is sailing the stormy waters of independence without any coherent political philosophy adequate to current realities

The power superstructure towering above the society the Leviathan of a state evolves in Ukraine outside both twentieth century traditions of the national state-building thought, on the one hand, and the historical and current experience of the European democracies, on the other. The construction of the Ukrainian state takes place by secret, private means closed to the public and far from society as a whole. In doing so, the top leadership relies primarily on its own former narrow group activities devoid of any state-building experience and marked by a corporative understanding of the national interests.

Unfortunately, the authors of available publications on problems of Ukrainian state-building, which have appeared in the past several years, are primarily concerned with trying to prove to the world community, Ukrainian society, and sometimes even to themselves the historical inevitability and significance of the very fact of independent Ukraine's emergence on the world political map. Such books can be easily recognized by their style: they arc weighted down with what /xii/ might be called "historical-philological romanticism" and solemn epic intonations. The state is thus made sacred, and the rhetoric of self-organizing is all pervasive. Such modern concepts as civil society, democracy, self-government, legitimacy, and human rights are shunned.

But then, is it really possible to "build" a state only on the basis of abstractly grounded patriotic feelings? Is it enough to be satisfied with publicizing one's patriotism at home while suffering fiascoes in solving burning domestic problems and defending its national interests on the international arena?

For centuries a principal method of the Ukrainian liberation struggle has been to seek outside allies and adapt to alien interests and geopolitical scenarios. Ukrainian leadership elites have been incapable of uniting on the basis of a general state- and nation-building vision, the desire and capability to become cognizant of Ukraine's objective national interests, and to understand societal expectations in order to steer the nation's development into a course of normal life befitting the dignity of man.

The present group of authors have attempted to make an analysis that would be free from propagandists pathos and excessive descriptive detail and to examine both the achievements of Ukrainian state-building thought and the special features of the Ukrainian struggle for independence as well as the weight and role of its inner and external factors.

The volume is a logical continuation of the scholarly quest of researchers grouped around the Political Thought (Kyiv) journal. Its major aim is to contribute to the forming of a truly democratic Ukrainian society and to stimulate its will to building its own future full-fledged nation. There can be no doubt that the cause of nation-building cannot be farmed out to those who weild power and chimeras of an "objective course oi history."


Kyiv, August 1996

Oleksandr Dergachov. editor







Editorial Board:

Oleksandr DERGACHOV, editor,

Olch BILYI, Ihor BURAKOVSKY, Yevhen BYSTRYTSKY, Mykola HORELOV, James E. MACE, Scrhiy MAKEYEV, Volodymyr POLOKHALO, Mykola TOMENKO, Oleksandr SHARVAROK.


Group of Autors:

Viktor ADAMSKY (Section II, Chapter 9, 1-7, co-author); Borys ANDRESYUK (I, 3, 6, co-author); Oleh BILYI (I, 6, 5, co-author; III, 2, 2, 5; III, 2, 6, co-author); Ihor BURAKOVSKY (III, 4); Viktor BURLACHUK (I, 3, 1-5); Yevhen BYSTRYTSKY (III, 2, 1, 3, 4; III, 2, 6, co-author); Oleksandr DERGACHOV (I, 6, 5, co-author; II, 9, 8; III, 1, co-author); Mykola DERZHALYUK (II, 3); Andriy FEDOROV (III, 5); Oleksiy HARAN (II, 8, 4); Mykola HORELOV (I, 2; I, 3, 6, co-author); Serhiy HRYHORYSHYN (II, 5); Yevhen KAMINSKY (II, 8, 1-3, 5); Borys KANTSELYARUK (II, 9, 1-7, co-author); Nataliya KOSTENKO (III, 6, co-author); Victor KOVAL (II, 8, 3-4, 6); Volodymyr KOVTUN (I, 6, 4); Nataliya KSIONDZYK (II, 6, 3-4); Vadym LEVANDOVSKY (II, 1); James E. MACE (I, 1); Serhiy MAKEYEV (III, 6, co-author); Andtiy MARTYNOV (II, 7, 7); Mykola NESUK (II, 6, 1-2; II, 7, 1-2); Volodymyr POLOKHALO (III, 1, co-author); Volodymyr REPRYNTSEV (II, 2); Anatoly RUSNACHENKO (I, 6, 1-3), Oleksandr SALTOVSKY (I, 5); Volodymyr SERHIYCHUK (II, 7, 5); Leonid SHKLYAR (III, 3); Mykola TOMENKO (I, 4); Stepan VIDNYANSKY (II, 4).


ISBN 966-543-04-08 (engl) WAKLER (c) Political Thought, 1996








About the Autors



Viktor ADAMSKY Graduate student, Institute of World Economy and International Relations, Ukrainian National Academy of Sciences.

Borys ANDRESIUK Candidate of Economics.

Oleh BILYI Doctor of Philology, Supervisory Research Fellow, Institute of Philosophy, Ukrainian National Academy of Sciences; Deputy Editor-in-Chief, Political Thought.

Ihor BURAKOVSKY Candidate of Economics, Associate Professor, National Kyiv-Mohyla Academy University; Editor for Economic Analysis and Forecasting, Political Thought.

Viktor BURLACHUK Candidate of Philosophy, Senior Research Fellow, Ukrainian National Academy of Sciences.

Yevhen BYSTRYTSKY Doctor of Philosophy, Department Chair, Institute of Philosophy, Ukrainian National Academy of Sciences; President, Ukrainian Philosophical Foundation; Editor for Politics of Culture and Philosophy of Politics, Political Thought.

Oleksandr DERGACHOV Candidate of History, Department Chair, National Kyiv-Mohyla Academy University; Deputy Editor-in-Chief, Political Thought.

Mykola DERZHALIUK Doctor of History, Supervisory Research Fellow, Institute of Ukrainian History, Ukrainian National Academy of Sciences.

Andriy FEDOROV Candidate of Philology, Research Fellow, Institute of Literature, Ukrainian National Academy of Sciences.

Oleksiy HARAN Candidate of History, Associate Professor, National KyivMohyla Academy University.

Mykola HORELOV Senior Research Fellow, Institute of World Economy and International Relations, Ukrainian National Academy of Sciences.

Serhiy HRYHORYSHYN Candidate of History, Chernivtsi Section Chair, Institute of World Economy and International Relations, Ukrainian National Academy of Sciences.

Yevhen KAMINSKY Doctor of History, Section Chair, Institute of World Economy and International Relations, Ukrainian National Academy of Sciences; Editor for International Relations, Political Thought.

Borys KANTSELARUK Candidate of Philology, Senior Research Fellow, Institute of World Economy and International Relations, Ukrainian National Academy of Sciences.

Natalia KOSTENKO Doctor of Sociology, Supervisory Research Fellow, Institute of Sociology, Ukrainian National Academy of Sciences.

Viktor KOVAL Doctor of History, Senior Research Fellow, Institute of Ukrainian History, Ukrainian National Academy of Sciences.

Volodymyr KOVTUN Chair of the Secretariat of the Congress of Ukrainian Intelligentsia.

Natalia KSIONDZYK Candidate of History, Senior Research Fellow, Institute of World Economy and International Relations, Ukrainian National Academy of Sciences.

Vadym LEVANDOVSKY Candidate of Philosophy.

James E. MACE Doctor of History, Supervisory Research Fellow, Institute of Ethnic and Political Studies, Ukrainian National Academy of Sciences; Professor of Political Science, Kyiv-Mohyla Academy National University; Deputy Editor-in-Chief, Political Thought.

Serhiy MAKEYEV Doctor of Sociology, Department Head, Institute of Sociology, Ukrainian National Academy of Sciences; Editor for Sociology of Politics, Political Thought.

Andriy MARTYNOV Graduate student, Institute of Ukrainian History, Ukrainian National Academy of Sciences.

Mykola NESUK Learned Secretary, Institute of World Economy and International Relations, Ukrainian National Academy of Sciences.

Volodymyr POLOKHALO Candidate of History, Editor-in-Chief, Political Thought, Associate Professor, Taras Shevchenko National University of Kyiv.

Volodymyr REPRYNTSEV Candidate of History, Senior Research Fellow, Institute of Ukrainian History, Ukrainian National Academy of Sciences.

Anatoly RUSNACHENKO Candidate of History.

Oleksandr SALTOVSKY Candidate of Philosophy, Associate Professor, Taras Shevchenko National University of Kyiv.

Volodymyr SERHIYCHUK Doctor of History, Professor, Taras Shevchenko National University of Kyiv.

Leonid SHKLIAR Candidate of Philosophy, Senior Research Fellow, Institute of Philosophy, Ukrainian National Academy of Sciences.

Mykola TOMENKO Candidate of History, Director, Institute of Postcommunist Society; Editor for Comparative Politics, Political Thought.

Stepan VIDNIANSKY Candidate of History, Department Head, Institute of Ukrainian History, Ukrainian National Academy of Sciences.







Ukrainian Statehood in the Twentieth Century: Historical and Political Analysis / Oleksandr Dergachov (editor). Kyiv: Political Thought, 1996. 448 p. ISBN 966-543-03-51 (Engl) "WAKLER"


The volume is prepared for publication by the Editorial Board of the Ukrainian scientific journal Political Thought (Kyiv) and the Institute of Postcommunist Society. It contains a comprehensive complex historical, political, and socio-philosophical analysis of issues in Ukrainian statehood in the twentieth century. The theoretical heritage of the national statehood-making thought is described in detail. Considerable attention is paid to the geopolitical parameters of Ukraine's becoming independent as well as the current problems of nation- and state-making and social development.

The book is designed for scholars, university instructors, graduate students, and students, and can be used as a textbook in modern Ukrainian history, political science, history of international relations, and social and political philosophy.

The volume is also published in Ukrainian and Russian editions.


This publication was prepared by the Ukrainian scholarly journal Political Thought and the Institute of Postcommunist Society with financial assistance from the International Renaissance Foundation and was edited in cooperation with the Friedrich Ebert Stiftung Cooperation Office in Ukraine














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